The modular luminescence lifetime imaging (MOLLI) system was developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen to enable luminescence lifetime-based oxygen imaging with planar oxygen optodes (Glud et al. 1996). Many people have been involved in the design and development of the technology. Gerhard Holst designed and constructed the first prototype (Holst et al. 1998). Bjoern Grunwald added several electronic improvements plus wrote the core measurement software (Holst & Grunwald, 2001). Ronnie Glud and his co-workers adapted the system for in situ measurements, especially for deep-sea studies (Glud et al. 2001). Together with Paul Faerber and Harald Osmers, Lubos Polerecky initiated and realized the final rearrangement of the system into a one-box type of instrument (Polerecky, 2005), which is also the design currently used by the MPI group and described in more detail here (see image to the right). LP also added some improvements to the measurement software and wrote software utilities for many kinds of data analysis.
Since it's development in the mid 1990's, the system has been applied by scientific groups from countries like Germany, Denmark, Japan, South Korea, USA, UK. Applications of the system include studies of biogeochemical processes in sediments, bioirrigation by benthic macrofauna, activity measurements in microbial mats and biofilms.
This website provides some details about the MOLLI system and how it is used at the Microsensor group in MPI Bremen. Practical information about the hardware and software can be found in this report: (Polerecky 2005)